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By prohibiting the institution of slavery and by outlawing individual citizens from owning slaves, the legislature in the wake of the Civil War created the first constitutional provision to directly limit the rights and freedoms of American citizens. When Abraham Lincoln was elected President in , he inherited a nation that was rapidly unraveling, largely around the question of whether slavery should extend into the western territories.

But the man who would go on to agitate for the passage of the anti-slavery amendment did not see it as his primary goal to mandate nationwide emancipation.

Abraham Lincoln and slavery

While he opposed such westward expansion, Lincoln believed that the federal government was not constitutionally authorized to ban slavery in states where it already existed. In , when the President entered into war with the Confederacy, his aim, then, was not to disrupt the system of slavery in the South, but rather to repair the fractured nation.

Still, in the early years of his presidency, as Lincoln worked toward reconciliation, he was also forced to contend with the question of how best to deal with the issue of slavery and, more broadly, with the expanding black population in the Union. Of primary concern was the question of whether to open the Union army to African-American troops.

At first, Lincoln denied black entry into the military, in part because of his anxiety over the prospect of losing northern white support. By the summer of , though, with mounting deaths and desertions and declining enlistments of white soldiers, the President reconsidered his position.

Some were freed blacks who had made lives for themselves in the South, but many more were slaves who, when troops marched through the Confederacy, took it upon themselves to claim their freedom and sign up for the Union cause. And as black soldiers entered the military, the relationship between the war and the institution of slavery became more intertwined. As Lincoln saw it, with the inclusion of African-Americans in the conflict, the fight had become defined by the question of slavery. In early autumn, the President began to make overtures toward formal emancipation, and on January 1, , he announced his Emancipation Proclamation.

The declaration was largely a military gesture, pronouncing freedom for all slaves in the Confederacy — those states over which Lincoln had no control. Still, the symbolic directive had the effect of highlighting the centrality of slavery to the Union cause. By making the army an agent of emancipation and wedding the goals of Union and abolition, it ensured that northern victory would produce a social transformation in the South and a redefinition of the place of blacks in American life.

On December 14, , nearly a year after Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, Congressman James Ashley of Ohio introduced a bill supporting a federal prohibition on slavery. A month later, Missouri Senator John Henderson submitted a joint resolution for a constitutional amendment.

The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery by Eric Foner

In late spring, there emerged a coalition of anti-slavery agitators, forming the new Radical Democracy party. Led by John C. Fremont, the party endorsed the anti-slavery amendment and also called for passage of a provision guaranteeing civil rights more broadly.

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Upon accepting the Republican nomination for president, Lincoln publicly endorsed constitutional emancipation for the first time. His formal support of the amendment, as well as more general efforts by Republicans to broker compromise toward a cohesive political party, sufficiently weakened the platform of Radical Democracy, and in September, Fremont withdrew from the race.

That fall, as Lincoln defeated Democratic candidate George McClellan and secured his second presidential bid, Congress continued to debate the passage of the 13th amendment. This time, however, the President positioned himself at the center of the controversy. Letter to Judge J. Wakefield , after the death of Lincoln's son Willie in , as cited in Abraham Lincoln: was he a Christian? America will never be destroyed from the outside. If we falter and lose our freedoms, it will be because we destroyed ourselves. First attributed to Lincoln in , this seems a paraphrase of a statement in the Lyceum address of , while incorporating language used by Thomas E.

Dewey c. They can only fail if they fail to lend their united support to full production in a free society". Now, I say to you, my fellow-citizens, that in my opinion the signers of the Declaration had no reference to the negro whatever when they declared all men to be created equal. They desired to express by that phrase, white men, men of European birth and European descent, and had no reference either to the negro, the savage Indians, the Fejee, the Malay, or any other inferior and degraded race, when they spoke of the equality of men.

One great evidence that such was their understanding, is to be found in the fact that at that time every one of the thirteen colonies was a slaveholding colony, every signer of the Declaration represented a slave-holding constituency, and we know that no one of them emancipated his slaves, much less offered citizenship to them when they signed the Declaration, and yet, if they had intended to declare that the negro was the equal of the white man, and entitled by divine right to an equality with him, they were bound, as honest men, that day and hour to have put their negroes on an equality with themselves.

No historical record of such a debate actually exists, though there was a famous set of speeches by both in Peoria on 16 October , but transcripts of Lincoln's speech on that date do not indicate that he made such a statement. It in fact comes from a speech made by Douglas in the third debate against Lincoln at Jonesboro, Illinois on 15 September As a result of the war, corporations have been enthroned and an era of corruption in high places will follow, and the money power of the country will endeavor to prolong its reign by working upon the prejudices of the people until all wealth is aggregated in a few hands and the Republic is destroyed.

I feel at this moment more anxiety for the safety of my country than ever before, even in the midst of war. God grant that my suspicions may prove groundless. Purportedly in a letter to Colonel William F. Elkins 21 November after the passage of the National Bank Act 3 June , these remarks were attributed to Lincoln as early as but were denounced by John Nicolay , Lincoln's private secretary and biographer. Nicolay: "This alleged quotation from Mr. Lincoln is a bald, unblushing forgery. The great President never said it or wrote it, and never said or wrote anything that by the utmost license could be distorted to resemble it.

It is more despotic then monarchy. More insolent than autocracy. More selfish then bureaucracy.

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  • I see the near future a crisis approaching that unnerves me and causes me to tremble for the safety of my country. Corporations have been enthroned. An era of corruption will follow and the money power of the country, will endeavor to prolong it's reign by working upon the prejudices of the people. Until the wealth is aggregated in a few hands and the Republic is destroyed.

    Shaw, p. The money power preys upon the nation in times of peace and conspires against it in times of adversity. It is more despotic than a monarchy, more insolent than autocracy, more selfish than bureaucracy. It denounces, as public enemies, all who question its methods or throw light upon its crimes.

    I like to see a man live so that his place will be proud of him.

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    Be honest, but hate no one; overturn a man's wrongdoing, but do not overturn him unless it must be done in overturning the wrong. Stand with a man while he is right, and part with him when he goes wrong. The last sentence is from the 16 October Peoria speech, slightly paraphrased. No known contemporary source for the rest. Not by Lincoln, this is apparently paraphrased from remarks about honoring him by Hugh Gordon Miller: "I do not believe in forever dragging over or raking up some phases of the past; in some respects the dead past might better be allowed to bury its dead, but the nation which fails to honor its heroes, the memory of its heroes, whether those heroes be living or dead, does not deserve to live, and it will not live, and so it came to pass that in nearly a hundred millions of people [ You cannot bring about prosperity by discouraging thrift.

    You cannot strengthen the weak by weakening the strong. You cannot help small men by tearing down big men. You cannot help the poor by destroying the rich. You cannot lift the wage earner by pulling down the wage payer. You cannot keep out of trouble by spending more than your income. You cannot further the brotherhood of man by inciting class hatreds. You cannot establish security on borrowed money. You cannot build character and courage by taking away a man's initiative and independence.

    You cannot help men permanently by doing for them what they could and should do for themselves. Actually a statement by William J. Boetcker known as "The Ten Cannots" , this has often been misattributed to Lincoln since when a leaflet containing quotes by both men was published.

    Noted Speeches of Abraham Lincoln (FULL Audiobook)

    There is no room for two distinct races of white men in America, much less for two distinct races of whites and blacks. I can conceive of no greater calamity than the assimilation of the Negro into our social and political life as an equal Within twenty years we can peacefully colonize the Negro in the tropics and give him our language, literature, religion, and system of government under conditions in which he can rise to the full measure of manhood.

    This he can never do here. We can never attain the ideal Union our fathers dreamed, with millions of an alien, inferior race among us, whose assimilation is neither possible nor desirable. On some sites this has been declared to be something Lincoln said "soon after signing" the Emancipation Proclamation, but without any date or other indications of to whom it was stated, and there are no actual historical records of Lincoln ever saying this. Congressmen who willfully take actions during wartime that damage morale and undermine the military are saboteurs and should be arrested, exiled, or hanged.

    ‘Last Best Hope’

    If you look for the bad in mankind expecting to find it, you surely will. This is attributed to Lincoln in the film adaptation of Pollyanna. In reality, it was fabricated by screenwriter and director David Swift , who had to have thousands of lockets bearing the false inscription recalled after Disney began selling them at Disneyland. Money is the creature of law and creation of the original issue of money should be maintained as an exclusive monopoly of national government. These remarks in support of a government-regulated money supply were written by Gerry McGeer , who presented them as his interpretation of what Lincoln believed.

    McGeer, Gerald Grattan The Conquest of Poverty. Gardenvale, Quebec: Garden City Press.

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    Retrieved on To ease another's heartache is to forget one's own. Quoted in a Edith A. Sawyer , Mary Cameron If this is coffee, please bring me some tea; but if this is tea, please bring me some coffee. Quoted in Herbert V. Prochnow , Speaker's Book of Epigrams and Witticisms The best way to get a bad law repealed is to enforce it. Grant in his First Inaugural Address 4 March : "I know no method to secure the repeal of bad or obnoxious laws so effective as their stringent execution".

    The only person who is a worse liar than a faith healer is his patient. Quoted in Victor J. Stenger , Physics and Psychics I care not much for a man's religion whose dog and cat are not the better for it. Attributed to Lincoln in Mark Gold , Animal century. Also attributed to Rowland Hill in Henry Woodcock , Wonders of Grace You cannot escape the responsibility of tomorrow by evading it today. Quoted in Vernon K. McLellan Wise Words and Quotes Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a man's character, give him power.

    Widely attributed to Lincoln, this appears to be derived from Thomas Carlyle 's general comment below, but there are similar quotes about Lincoln in his biographies. Adversity is sometimes hard upon a man; but for one man who can stand prosperity, there are a hundred that will stand adversity. Any man can stand adversity — only a great man can stand prosperity. This is the supreme test. It is the glory of Lincoln that, having almost absolute power, he never used it except on the side of mercy.

    Robert G. Google Books Full View If you want to discover just what there is in a man — give him power. If you truly want to test a man's character, give him power. This quote is often misattributed to Lincoln. The earliest instance that Quote Investigator could locate was "in an advertisement in for a book about aging by Edward J. Stieglitz, M. C7, Chicago, Illinois.

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